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About Hereford

Hereford


 

Hereford is a cathedral citycivil parish and county town ofHerefordshireEngland. It lies on the River Wye, approximately 16 miles (26 km) east of the border with Wales, 24 miles (39 km) southwest ofWorcester, and 23 miles (37 km) northwest of Gloucester. With a population of 53,516 people, it is the largest settlement in the county.

The name "Hereford" is said to come from the Anglo-Saxon "here", an army or formation of soldiers, and the "ford", a place for crossing a river. If this is the origin it suggests that Hereford was a place where a body of armed men forded or crossed the Wye. The Welsh name for Hereford is Henffordd, meaning "old road", and probably refers to the Roman road and Roman settlement at nearby Stretton Sugwas.

An early town charter from 1189 granted by Richard I of England describes it as "Hereford in Wales".[2] Hereford has been recognised as a city sincetime immemorial, with the status being reconfirmed as recently as October 2000.[3][4]

It is now known chiefly as a trading centre for a wider agricultural and rural area. Products from Hereford include: ciderbeerleather goods, nickelalloys, poultry, chemicals, and cattle, including the famous Hereford breed.

HerefordSkyline.jpg
Hereford Cathedral and Wye Bridge




History



 

Hereford Cathedral, from Church Street

 

 

 

 

Hereford became the seat of Putta, Bishop of Hereford, some time between AD 676 and 688, after which the settlement continued to grow due to its proximity to the border betweenMercia and Wales, becoming the Saxon capital of West Mercia by the beginning of the 8th century.

Hostilities between the Anglo-Saxons and the Welsh came to a head with the Battle of Hereford in 760, in which the Britons freed themselves from the influence of the English. Hereford was again targeted by the Welsh during their conflict with the Anglo-Saxon KingEdward the Confessor in AD 1056 when, supported by Viking allies, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Gwynedd and Powys, marched on the town and put it to the torch before returning home in triumph. Hereford had the only mint west of the Severn in the reign of Athelstan(924–39), and it was to Hereford, then a border town, that Athelstan summoned the leading Welsh princes.

The present Hereford Cathedral dates from the early 12th century, as does the first bridge across the Wye. Former Bishops of Hereford include Saint Thomas de Cantilupe and Lord High Treasurer of England Thomas Charlton.

The city gave its name to two suburbs of Paris, France: Maisons-Alfort (population 54,600) and Alfortville (population 36,232), due to a manor built there by Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, in the middle of the 13th century.

Hereford, a base for successive holders of the title Earl of Hereford, was once the site of a castle, Hereford Castle, which rivalled that of Windsor in size and scale. This was a base for repelling Welsh attacks and a secure stronghold for English kings such as King Henry IV when on campaign in the Welsh Marches against Owain Glynd┼Ár. The castle was dismantled in the 18th century and landscaped into Castle Green.

After the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461, during the Wars of the Roses, the defeated Lancastrian leader Owen Tudor(grandfather of the future Henry VII of England) was taken to Hereford by Sir Roger Vaughan and executed in High Town. A plaque now marks the spot of the execution. Vaughan was later himself executed, under a flag of truce, by Owen's son Jasper.




 

 
The Old House, High Town. This timber-framed Jacobean building, built in 1621, is now a museum.

 

During the civil war the city changed hands several times. On 30 September 1642Parliamentarians led by Sir Robert Harley and Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamfordoccupied the city without opposition. In December they withdrew to Gloucesterbecause of the presence in the area of a Royalist army under Lord Herbert. The city was again occupied briefly from 23 April to 18 May 1643 by Parliamentarians commanded by Sir William Waller but it was in 1645 that the city saw most action. On 31 July 1645 a Scottish army of 14,000 under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Levenbesieged the city but met stiff resistance from its garrison and inhabitants. They withdrew on 1 September when they received news that a force led by King Charleswas approaching. The city was finally taken for Parliament on 18 December 1645 byColonel Birch and Colonel Morgan. King Charles showed his gratitude to the city of Hereford on 16 September 1645 by augmenting the city's coat of arms with the three lions of Richard I of England, ten Scottish Saltires signifying the ten defeated Scottish regiments, a very rare lion crest on top of the coat of arms signifying "defender of the faith" and the even rarer gold-barred peer's helm, found only on the arms of one other municipal authority: those of the City of London.[10]

Nell Gwynne, actress and mistress of King Charles II, is said to have been born in Hereford in 1650 (although other towns and cities, notably Oxford, also claim her as their own); Gwynn Street is named after her. Another famous actor born in Hereford is David Garrick (1717–1779).

The Bishop's Palace next to the Cathedral was built in 1204 and continually used to the present day. Hereford Cathedral School is also one of the oldest schools in England.

During World War I, in 1916, a fire at the Garrick Theatre killed eight young girls who had been performing at a charity concert

Transport

 

 

Roads

There have been plans for many years for a north–south bypass and currently the plan is for a nine-mile (14 km) dual carriageway; however, HM Government as yet has refused to grant permission or supply funds. Until then the A49 Trunk Road, A465, and A438 continue to run through the city centre.


 

Rail

Hereford is served by a 4-platform railway station on the Welsh Marches Linewhich opened in 1854. Services regularly connect to Worcester, Birmingham,London, Manchester, Cardiff and other settlements in south Wales. The station is currently operated by Arriva Trains Wales. A second station, Hereford Barton, was closed and later redeveloped. A new station is proposed for construction in the government-designated Enterprise zone in Rotherwas, south of the River Wye.

Air

There is no airport in or near Hereford. The nearest are at Gloucester, Bristol, Birmingham, and Cardiff.




 

 

Economy

 

 


 

High Town, Hereford – Pedestrianised shopping area





 

Economy

 




 

The main public service employers in Hereford include:

In 2005 Hereford was granted Fairtrade City status.

Major employers in the city include:

Other major companies based in Herefordshire include:

Herefordshire is a global centre for cider production as it supports many acres of orchards, so many breweries and associated organisations exist here, along with other heavy and light industries. Within the city, many are based at the Rotherwas Industrial Estate.

 

 








 

Education



 

University



 

Herefordshire is one of only three English counties not to have a university. However, until 1977 Hereford was home toHereford College of Education, a higher education institution which offered teacher training qualifications.

Plans are now in progress to create, from scratch, a New University in Hereford, to teach STEM subjects from 2017.




 

Colleges


 

Hereford is home to five colleges, including:

The National School of Blacksmithing is the oldest established Blacksmithing college in the UK, also the largest facility for training smiths in Europe. This is also part of HCT.

 

 

 

 

Schools

Hereford's many secondary schools include:

Primary schools in the city include Hereford Cathedral Junior School, a co-educational independent school. Hereford Cathedral Junior School is, with Hereford Cathedral School, part of the ancient Hereford Cathedral Foundation dating back to 676. The Junior School was founded as an independent school in 1898.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hereford 


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