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About Ipswich

Ipswich 

 

 

 

 

 

Ipswich  is a large town in Suffolk, England, of which it is thecounty town. Ipswich is located on the estuary of the River Orwell. Nearby towns are Felixstowe, Woodbridge, Needham Market and Stowmarket in Suffolk and Harwich and Colchester in Essex. Ipswich is a non-metropolitan district.

The urban development of Ipswich overspills the borough boundaries significantly, with 75% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2011 Census, when it was the fourth-largest urban area in the United Kingdom's East of England region, and the 38th largest urban area in England and Wales.

The modern name is derived from the medieval name 'Gippeswic', probably taken either from an Old Saxon personal name or from an earlier name of the Orwell estuary (although unrelated to the name of the River Gipping). In 2011, the town of Ipswich was found to have a population of 133,384,while the Ipswich built-up area is estimated to have a population of approximately 180,000.

 

 

 

Top down: Christchurch Mansion, Willis Building,water tower, Ipswich Waterfront, Ipswich Town Centre, Sir Bobby Robson Bridge
Top down: Christchurch MansionWillis Building,water tower, Ipswich Waterfront, Ipswich Town Centre, Sir Bobby Robson Bridge

 

 



History




Ancient House is decorated with a particularly fine example of pargeting.







 
Timber-frame buildings in St Nicholas Street

Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell andGipping. A large Roman fort, part of the coast defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe (13 miles, 21 km), and the largest Roman villa in Suffolk (possibly an administrative complex) stood at Castle Hill (north-west Ipswich).

Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns, and took shape in Anglo-Saxon times (in the 7th–8th centuries) around Ipswich dock. As the coastal states of north-western Europe emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, essential North Sea trade and communication between eastern Britain and the continent (especially to Scandinavia, and through the Rhine) passed through the formerly Roman ports of London (serving the Kingdoms of Mercia, the East Saxons and of Kent) and of York (Eoforwic) (serving the Kingdom of Northumbria). 

Gipeswic (also Gippelwich ) arose as the equivalent to these serving theKingdom of East Anglia, its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English (616–624). The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby (9 miles, 14.5 km) is probably his grave. The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall Treasure and the Sutton Hoo treasure. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weaponsjewellery and other artefacts.

The 7th-century town was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times. Their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance.

Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule. The earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. They were unsuccessful. The town operated a Mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215. The abbreviation 'Gipes' appears on the coins.

King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the medieval foundations of its modern civil government. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, trading Suffolk cloth with the Continent. Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories (St Peter and St Paul, and Holy Trinity, both mid-12th century), and those of the Greyfriars (Franciscans, before 1298), Ipswich Whitefriars (Carmelites founded 1278–79) and Ipswich Blackfriars (Dominicans, before 1263), stood in medieval Ipswich. The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama (Kynge Johan, c.1538).There were also several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, and attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.

Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury TalesThomas Wolsey, the futurecardinal, was born in Ipswich about 1475 as the son of a wealthy landowner. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, which was for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School. He remains one of the town's most famed figures.



 

Neptune Marina Quay, Ipswich

 

Ipswich was a kontor for the Hanseatic League with its port used for import and export to the Baltic.

In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands inChristchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration toNew England. This was encouraged by the Town Lecturer, Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, Massachusetts, where a promontory was named 'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-west Ipswich, UK. Ipswich was also one of the main ports of embarkation for puritans leaving other East Anglian towns and villages for the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the 1630s and what has become known as the Great Migration.

The painter Thomas Gainsborough lived and worked in Ipswich. In 1835, Charles Dickens stayed in Ipswich and used it as a setting for scenes in his novel The Pickwick Papers. The hotel where he resided first opened in 1518; it was then known as The Tavern and later became known as the Great White Horse Hotel. Dickens made the hotel famous in chapter XXII of The Pickwick Papers, vividly describing the hotel's meandering corridors and stairs. The building now houses branches of Starbucks and Cotswold Outdoor.

In 1824 Dr George Birkbeck, with support from several local businessmen, founded one of the first Mechanics' Instituteswhich survives to this day as the independent Ipswich Institute Reading Room and Library. The elegant building, at 15 Tavern Street, has been the site of the Library since 1836.

In 1797 Lord and Lady Nelson moved to Ipswich, and in 1800 Lord Nelson was appointed High Steward of Ipswich.

In the mid-19th century Coprolite (fossilized animal dung) was discovered, the material was mined and then dissolved inacid, the resulting mixture forming the basis of Fisons fertilizer business.

Ipswich was subject to bombing by German Zeppelins during the First World War but the greatest damage by far occurred during the German bombing raids of World War II. The area in and around the docks were especially devastated. The last bombs to fall on Ipswich landed on Seymour Street in March 1945.

 




Districts



 

Aerial view of Ipswich in 2008

 

The Ipswich docks area (also 'the waterfront') is now devoted primarily to leisure use and includes extensive recent development of residential apartment blocks and the new University Campus. Fairline Boats and Spirit Yachts operate from the dock as does a timber merchant. Other industrial uses dominate to the south of the wet dock. Recently Waterfront Action was formed to help create a friendly, thriving and vibrant community for the Ipswich Waterfront with the initiative being led by Waterfront Churches.

Holywells is the area around Holywells Park, a 67 acre (27 ha) public park, situated near the docks, that was painted by Thomas Gainsborough. Alexandra Park is the nearest park to the Northern Quay of the Ipswich Waterfont, and situated on Back Hamlet next to the Northern block of UCS.

Chantry is the name of a housing estate and park to the South-West of Ipswich.

Other districts outside the town centre include Bixley FarmBroke HallCaliforniaCastle Hill, The Dales, Gainsborough, Greenwich, Kesgrave (which is actually a separate town situated in Suffolk Coastal District), MaidenhallPinewoodPriory HeathRacecourseRavenswood (built on the former air field), Rose HillRushmereSpringvaleSt MargaretsStoke,Warren HeathWestbourneWhitehouse and Whitton.

To the east of the town is Trinity Park near Bucklesham the home of the annual Suffolk Show one of the County shows in United Kingdom. The 'Trinity' is the name given to the three animals native to the county of Suffolk, namely Red Poll cattle, the powerful Suffolk Punch horse and the black faced Suffolk Sheep.

 

Buildings

 

 

 

In addition to the Christchurch Mansion and Ancient House, Ipswich in the 21st century has some important cultural buildings including the New Wolsey Theatre and the Regent Theatre – the largest theatre venue in East Anglia where, in the 1960s, the Beatlesperformed when it was still known as the Gaumont.

There are several medieval Ipswich churches but the grandest is St Mary le Tower, rebuilt by the Victorians. Holy Trinity Church by Ipswich Waterfront is one of the few churches in the country which was built during the reign of William IV and whilst the outside looks plain, the interior is quite spectacular. The world's oldest circle of church bells is housed in St Lawrence Church.

The former East Suffolk County Hall is in the centre of Ipswich. It is listed as a building at risk by the Victorian Society. The Town Hall remains in use as an arts centre and events venue; it dates from 1866 (architects: Bellamy & Hardy of Lincoln).

Modern buildings include the new Suffolk County Hall (Endeavour House),Grafton House (Ipswich Borough Council) and Ipswich Crown Court, all located on Russell Road (Ipswich) in the area known as Ipswich Village close to Ipswich Town's Portman Road stadium. The stadium has hosted England under 21, under 23, and full international matches in addition to an England hockey game.

In the Waterfront area The Mill (Ipswich) is the tallest building in East Anglia reaching 23-stories, however the exterior was finished but the interior was never fitted out due to financial difficulties.

On the north-west side of Ipswich lies Broomhill Pool, a Grade II listed Olympic-sized lido which opened in 1938 and closed in 2002, since which time a campaign to see it restored and re-opened has been run by the Broomhill Pool Trust. On the southern side of Ipswich is the historical building called Belstead Lodge which is now the Belstead Brook Hotel

 

 

 

Transport




Ipswich sits close to the A14 and the A12 roads; it is also on the Great Eastern Main Line from London to Norwich, the East Suffolk Line to Lowestoft and the Felixstowe Branch Line with two railway stations (Ipswich and Derby Road). It is an hour from Stansted airport, 40 minutes from Harwich International Port and is also on Sustrans's National Cycle Route 1 andNational Cycle Route 51. The Port of Felixstowe is a major container port 12 miles (19 km) to the east.

Ipswich engine shed opened in 1846 and closed in 1968, although Ipswich is still a signing-on point for loco crews and a stabling point. Bus services in Ipswich are operated by Ipswich BusesFirst Eastern Counties and several smaller companies.. Ipswich formerly had a municipal airport to the South-east of the town, which was opened in 1929 by the Ipswich Corporation. The airport was controversially closed in 1996 by Ipswich Borough Council, amid significant public opposition to the decision. The site was redeveloped for housing as the Ravenswood estate







Education

 

 

 


Schools


There are a number of state-funded secondary schools which include comprehensive schools such as Copleston and  Northgate High School and academies such as Ipswich Academy and Suffolk New Academy. Ipswich is also home to several independent schools, including Royal Hospital SchoolIpswich School (both are co-educational and members of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference), Ipswich High School (girls-only) and St Joseph's College (Catholic, co-educational).




 

Further and higher education


 

Ipswich is the location of University Campus SuffolkSuffolk's first Higher Education Institution (HEI). Established in 2007, University Campus Suffolk is the trading name of University Campus Suffolk PLC, a company registered as a collaborative venture involving the University of Essex in Colchester, the University of East Anglia in Norwich, various further education colleges and Suffolk County Council. The nearest established full-fledged university is the University of Essex, which is approximately 18 miles (29 km) away.






Famous residents




Sir Alf Ramsey


 

Probably the most famous person born in the town is the Tudor Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. The artist Thomas Gainsborough and the cartoonist "Giles" worked here, Horatio, Lord Nelson, became Steward of Ipswich, and Margaret Catchpole began her adventurous career here. Alf Ramsey and Sir Bobby Robson were both successful managers of Ipswich Town F.C. In the early 19th century, Ipswich was home to a supposed cunning man who went by the name of Old Winter. He was said to use his powers to punish wrongdoers. Ipswich was the birthplace in 1741 of Sarah Trimmer, née Kirby, writer and critic of children's literature and among the first to introduce pictorial material and animals and the natural world into it.


 






 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipswich


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