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About Middlesbrough

 

 


Middlesbrough  is a large industrial town situated on the south bank of the River Tees in north-east England, that sits within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The local council, a unitary authority, is Middlesbrough Borough Council. The town is often considered to extend beyond the council boundary into the neighbouring borough of Redcar & Cleveland. According to the office for national statistics, the town forms part of the Middlesbrough built-up area sub-division with a population of 174,700, which itself is part of the larger built-up area of Teesside and had an overall population of 376,333 according to the 2011 census.

Middlesbrough was in North Riding of the county of York (1837–89), an administrative county was created with a county council in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, In 1968 it became the centre of theCounty Borough of Teesside, which was then absorbed by the non-metropolitan county of Cleveland in 1974. In 1996, Cleveland was abolished, and Middlesbrough became a unitary authority, within theceremonial county of North Yorkshire.

"Erimus" ("We shall be"), in Latin, was chosen as Middlesbrough's motto in 1830, to signify the town's will to grow. It is used in the names of commercial ventures and other organisations in the town, including social clubs. The town's coat of arms show an azure lion beneath 2 ships to represent the port of Middlesbrough. The design is based on that of the Brus family who owned the site on which Middlesbrough is built.

 

 

 

 

Skyline of Middlesbrough town centre
Skyline of Middlesbrough town centre



 

 

History



 
Old Town Hall


In 686, a monastic cell was consecrated by St. Cuthbert at the request of St. Hilda, Abbess of Whitby and in 1119 Robert Bruce, 1st Lord of Cleveland and Annandale, granted and confirmed the church of St. Hilda of Middleburg to Whitby. Up until its closure on the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII in 1537, the church was maintained by 12 Benedictinemonks, many of whom became vicars, or rectors, of various places in Cleveland. The importance of the early church at "Middleburg", later known as Middlesbrough Priory, is indicated by the fact that, in 1452, it possessed four altars.

After the Angles, the area became home to Viking settlers. Names of Viking origin (with the suffix by) are abundant in the area – for example, Ormesby, Stainsby, Maltby and Tollesby were once separate villages that belonged to Vikings called Orm, Steinn, Malti and Toll, but now form suburbs of Middlesbrough. The name Mydilsburgh is the earliest recorded form of Middlesbrough's name and dates to Anglo-Saxon times (400–1000 AD), while many of the aforementioned villages appear in the Domesday Book of 1086.

Other links persist in the area, often through school or road names, to now-outgrown or abandoned local settlements, such as the medieval settlement of Stainsby, deserted by 1757, which amounts to little more today than a series of grassy mounds near the A19 road.

 

In 1801, Middlesbrough was a small farm with a population of just 25. During the latter half of the 19th century, however, it experienced rapid growth.

The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) had been developed to transport coal from Witton Park Colliery and Shildon in County Durham, to the River Tees in the east. It had always been assumed by the investors that Stockton as the then lowest bridging point on the River Tees would be suitable to take the largest ships at the required volume. However, as the trade developed, and with competition from theClarence Railway which had established a new port on the north side of the river atPort Clarence, a better solution was required on the south side of the river.

In 1828 the influential Quaker banker, coal mine owner and S&DR shareholderJoseph Pease sailed up the River Tees to find a suitable new site down river of Stockton on which to place new coalstaithes. As a result, in 1829 he and a group of Quaker businessmen bought the Middlesbrough farmstead and associated estate, some 527 acres (213 ha) of land, and established the Middlesbrough Estate Company. Through the company, the investors set about the development of a new coal port on the banks of the Tees nearby, and a suitable town on the site of the farm (the new town of Middlesbrough) to supply the port with labour. By 1830 the S&DR had been extended to Middlesbrough and expansion of the town and port was assured. The small farmstead became the site of such streets as North Street, South Street, West Street, East Street, Commercial Street, Stockton Street and Cleveland Street, laid out in a grid-iron pattern around a market square. The town of Middlesbrough was born.

The port was linked to the S&DR on 27 December 1830 when the line was extended to a station at Newport, almost directly north of the current Middlesbrough railway station. The station and associated six-coal staithe dock facility were named "Port Darlington" by the S&DR. So successful was the port, a year after opening the population had reached 2,350.

However, with the port overwhelmed by the volume of imports and exports, in 1839 work started on Middlesbrough Dock. Laid out by Sir William Cubitt, the whole infrastructure was built by resident civil engineer George Turnbull. After three years and an expenditure of £122,000 (equivalent to £9.65m at 2011 prices), first water was let in on 19 March 1842, and the formal opening took place on 12 May 1842. On completion, the docks were bought by the S&DR.

 

 

Transport



Middlesbrough is served well by public transport notably by the Arriva North East and StagecoachNational Express andMegabus operate long distance coach travel from the bus station.

Train services are operated by Northern Rail and First Transpennine Express, the latter of which provides direct rail services to cities such as LeedsYork, Liverpool and Manchester, departing from Middlesbrough railway station.

In the past Middlesbrough has been served by the Middlesbrough, Stockton and Thornaby Electric Tramways Company,Imperial Tramways CompanyMiddlesbrough Corporation TramwaysTees-side Railless Traction Board and Teesside Municipal Transport.

 

 

 

 

Landmarks

 

 

 

Located in the suburb and former village of Acklam, Middlesbrough's oldest domestic building is Acklam Hall of 1678. Built by Sir William Hustler, it is also Middlesbrough's sole Grade I listed building. The Restoration mansion, accessible through an avenue of trees off Acklam Road, has seen progressive updates through the centuries, making a captivating document of varying trends in English architecture.


 

Transporter Bridge, built in 1911

 

Via a 1907 Act of ParliamentSir William Arrol & Co. of Glasgow built theTransporter Bridge (1911) which spans the River Tees between Middlesbrough and Port Clarence. At 850 feet (260 m) long and 225 feet (69 m) high, is one of the largest of its type in the world, and one of only two left in working order in Britain (the other being in Newport). The bridge remains in daily use. It is, a Grade II* listed building.

Another landmark, the Tees Newport Bridge, a vertical lift bridge, opened further along the river in 1934. Newport bridge still stands and is passable by traffic, but it can no longer lift the centre section.

The urban centre of Middlesbrough remains home to a variety of architecture ranging from the Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art, opened in January 2007 to replace a number of former outlying galleries; and Centre North East, formerly Corporation House, which opened in 1971. Many believe that there is a beauty to be found in the surrounding landscape of industry along the River Tees from Billingham to Wilton. The terracedVictorian streets surrounding the town centre are characterful elements of Middlesbrough's social and historical identity, and the vast streets surrounding Parliament Road and Abingdon Road a reminder of the area's wealth and rapid growth during industrialisation.

Middlesbrough Town Hall, designed by George Gordon Hoskins and built between 1883 and 1887 is a Grade II listed building, and a very imposing structure. Of comparable grandeur, is the Empire Palace of Varieties, of 1897, the finest surviving theatre edifice designed by Ernest Runtz in the UK. The first artist to star there in its guise as a music hall was Lillie Langtry. Later it became an early nightclub (1950s), then a bingo hall and is now once again a nightclub. Further afield, in Linthorpe, is the Middlesbrough Theatre opened by Sir John Gielgud in 1957; it was one of the first new theatres built in England after theSecond World War.

Middlesbrough Central (Public) Library

 

The town includes England's only public sculpture by Claes Oldenburg,[citation needed] the "Bottle O' Notes" of 1993, which relates to Captain James Cook. Based alongside it today in the town's Central Gardens is theMiddlesbrough Institute of Modern Art (MIMA). Refurbished in 2006, is theCarnegie library, dating from 1912. The Dorman Long office on Zetland Road, constructed between 1881 and 1891, is the only commercial building ever designed by Philip Webb, the architect who worked for Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell.

Temenos sculpture at Middlehaven.

 

Away from the town centre, at Middlehaven stands the Temenossculpture, designed by sculptor Anish Kapoor and designer Cecil Balmond. The steel structure, consisting of a pole, a circular ring and an oval ring, stands approximately 110 m long and 50 m high and is held together by steel wire. It was unveiled in 2010 at a cost of £2.7 million.

Culture and leisure

Dorman Museum

 

The Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art opened its doors in January 2007. It holds the second largest collection of Picassos in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] It also holds works by Andy WarholHenri Matisse and Damien Hirst among others. Its considerable arts and crafts collections span from 1900 to the present day.

Middlesbrough also has a healthy musical heritage. A number of bands hail from the area, including Chris ReaJourney South and Collectors Club.

Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art (mima)

 

Middlesbrough has two major recreational park spaces in Albert Park and Stewart ParkMarton. Albert Park was donated to the town by Henry Bolckow in 1866. It was formally opened by Prince Arthur on 11 August 1868, and comprises a 30 hectares (74 acres) site. The park underwent a considerable period of restoration from 2001 to 2004, during which a number of the park's landmarks, saw either restoration or revival. Stewart Park was donated to the people of Middlesbrough in 1928 by Councillor Thomas Dorman Stewart and encompasses Victorian stable buildings, lakes and animal pens. During 2011 and 2012, the park underwent major refurbishment. Alongside these two parks are two of the town's cultural attractions, the century-old Dorman Memorial Museum and the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum.

Newham Grange Leisure farm in Coulby Newham, one of the most southerly districts of the town, has operated continuously in this spot since the 17th century, becoming a leisure farm with the first residential development of the suburb in the 1970s. It is now a burgeoning tourist attraction: the chance to view its cattle, pigs, sheep and other farm animals is complemented by exhibitions of the farming history of the area.

Middlesbrough is famous for the Parmo, a version of scallopini Parmigiana or schnitzel consisting of deep-fried breaded chicken or pork cutlet, topped with thick béchamel sauce and grilled cheese. It is served with chips, salad & garlic sauce, and popular with people late at night who have been out on the town.

In the Middlehaven ward, is the Transporter Bridge Visitor Centre, opened in 2000 and offering its own exhibitions charting the stirring past of the surrounding industrial powerhouse, as well as that of the singular structure it commemorates.


 

 

Education

 
Middlesbrough Tower, Teesside University
 


Middlesbrough became a university town in 1992, after a concerted campaign for a distinct "Teesside University" which had run since the 1960s. Before its establishment, extramural classes had been provided by theUniversity of Leeds Adult Education Centre on Harrow Road, from 1958 to 2001.[28]Teesside University has more than 20,000 students. It dates back to 1930 as Constantine Technical College. Current departments of the university include Teesside University Business School and Schools of Arts and Media, Computing, Health and Social Care, Science & Engineering and Social Sciences & Law. The university teaches computer animation and games design and co-hosts the annualAnimex International Festival of Animation. The university also has links with theJames Cook University Hospital located south of the town centre.

There are also modern schools, colleges and sixth forms colleges, the largest of which is Middlesbrough College, in Middlehaven, with 16,000 students. Others include Trinity Catholic College in Acklam and Macmillan Academy on Stockton Road. Cleveland College of Art and Design, which opened in 1960, is also based in Middlesbrough and Hartlepool. It is one of only four specialist art and design further education colleges in the United Kingdom.






Secondary schools

Secondary schools in Middlesbrough include:

 

 

 

Religion


Christianity

Middlesbrough is a deanery of the Archdeaconry of Cleveland, a subdivision of the Church of England Diocese of York in the Province of York. It stretches west from Thirsk, north to Middlesbrough, east to Whitby and south to Pickering.

Middlesbrough is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough, which was created on 20 December 1878 from the Diocese of Beverley. Middlesbrough is home to the Mother-Church of the diocese, St. Mary's Cathedral, which is located in the suburb of Coulby Newham. The present bishop is the Right Reverend Terence Patrick Drainey, 7th Bishop of Middlesbrough, who was ordained on Friday 25 January 2008.

St. Stephen's, Middlesbrough, near the university campus, is an evangelical congregation, worshipping in the style of the Church of England, but which is in the Evangelical Connexion.

 

 

 

Islam

 

The Islamic community is represented in several mosques in Middlesbrough. Muslim sailors visited Middlesbrough from about 1890. and, in 1961, Azzam Din opened the first Halal butcher shop. The first mosque was a house in Grange Road in 1962. The Al-Madina Jamia Mosque, on Waterloo Road, the Dar ul Islam Central Mosque, on Southfield Road, and the Abu Bakr Mosque & Community Centre, which is on Park Road North, are among the best known mosques in Middlesbrough today.

 

Sikhism

 

The Sikh community established their first Temple, or Gurdwara, in Milton Street, in 1967.[32] After a time in Southfield Road, the centre is now in Lorne Street and was opened in 1990.



 

Hinduism

 

There is a Hindu Cultural Centre in Westbourne Road, North Ormesby, which was opened in 1990.

Tamil Cultural Society was founded April 2013 and is currently operating in Newport Community Centre in Middlesbrough.

 

 

 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middlesbrough


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