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About Newcastle Upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne

 



Newcastle upon Tyne commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in the North East ofEngland. It is situated on the north western bank of the River Tyne's estuary and centred 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea. The city is the most populous city in North East region and lies at the urban core of the Tyneside, the seventh most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom and the most populous in the North East. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and with Gateshead theEurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of thecounty of Northumberland until 1400 when it became a county of itself; a status it retained until becoming part of the Tyne and Wearmetropolitan county in 1974.

The city grew up in the area that was the location of the Romansettlement called Pons Aelius, and it owes its name to the castlebuilt in 1080, by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, therefore Newcastle contributes £13bn towards the United Kingdom's GVA.

Among its main icons are Newcastle Brown Ale, a leading brand of beer, Newcastle United F.C., a Premier League team, and the Tyne Bridge. It has hosted the world's most popular half marathon, the Great North Run, since it began in 1981.

The regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie.






Newcastle-upon-Tyne-bridges-and-skyline cropped.jpg
St James Park Newcastle south west corner.jpgTheatre Royal, Newcastle upon Tyne.jpg
Newcastle greys monument.jpgNewcastle schloss.jpg
From top-left: Newcastle Quayside and River TyneSt James' Park stadium, Theatre Royal, Georgian architecture around Grey's Monument, the Castle

 

 

 

 

 

History

 

 

Roman

 

The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne and given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian who founded it in the 2nd century AD. The population of Pons Aelius at this period was estimated at 2,000. Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are still visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can also be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the wall's end and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields. The extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles (117 km), spanning the width of Britain; the wall incorporated Agricola's Ditch[12] and was constructed primarily to prevent unwanted immigration and incursion of Pictish tribes from the north, not as a fighting line for a major invasion.


 

 
Newcastle Castle Keep is the oldest structure in the city, dating back to at least the 11th century.

Anglo-Saxon and Norman



After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, and became known throughout this period as Monkchester.[14] After a series of conflicts with the Danes and the devastation north of the River Tyne inflicted by Odo of Bayeux after the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed. Because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080 and the town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or New Castle .

Middle Ages



Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, a new charter was granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot (7.6 m) high stonewall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during theBorder war against Scotland. The Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, and Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was successfully defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, and was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400.

 

 

 

 

16th to 19th century

 

 


 
An engraving by William Miller of Newcastle in 1832

From 1530 a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded in 1538. This monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town.

 
Victoria Tunnel, built 1842. In 1935 after a government document requested its cities build air-raid shelters; part of the tunnel was converted.

In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city and beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families. They were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died ofplague.[17] Specifically within the year 1636, it is roughly estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the then population of Newcastle died as a result; this may also have been the most devastating loss in any British City in this period.

 

 

 
Newcastle was once a major industrial centre particularly for coal and shipping

During the English Civil War, Newcastle supported the king and in 1644 the city wasbesieged for many months, then stormed ('with roaring drummes') and sacked byCromwell's Scots allies, based in pro-Parliament Sunderland. The grateful King bestowed the motto "Fortiter Defendit Triumphans" ("Triumphing by a brave defence") upon the town. Ironically, Charles was imprisoned in Newcastle by the Scots in 1646–7.

In the 18th century, Newcastle was the country's fourth largest print centre after London, Oxford and Cambridge, and the Literary and Philosophical Society of 1793, with its erudite debates and large stock of books in several languages, predated the London Library by half a century. Newcastle also became a glass producer with a reputation for brilliant flint glass.

 

 

 

 
Newcastle city centre, 1917

A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion ofFenham Barracks in 1806.

In the 19th century, shipbuilding and heavy engineering were central to the city's prosperity; and the city was a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution. This revolution resulted in the urbanisation of the city. The Victorian industrial revolution brought industrial structures that included the 2 12-mile (4.0 km) Victoria Tunnelling, built in 1842, which provided underground wagon ways to thestaithes. On 3 February 1879, Mosley Street in the city, was the first public road in the world to be lit up by the incandescent lightbulb. Newcastle was one of the first cities in the world to be lit up by electric lighting. Innovation in Newcastle and surrounding areas the development of safety lamps, Stephenson's Rocket, Lord Armstrong's artillery, Be-Ro flour, Joseph Swan's electric light bulbs, andCharles Parsons' invention of the steam turbine, which led to the revolution of marine propulsion and the production ofcheap electricity. In 1882, Newcastle became the seat of an Anglican diocese, with St. Nicholas' Church becoming its cathedral.

Since 1900

 

 

 

Newcastle's public transport system was revolutionised in 1901 when Newcastle Corporation Tramways electric trams were introduced to the city's streets, though these were replaced by buses within 40 years.

The city acquired its first art gallery, the Laing Art Gallery in 1904, so named after its founder Alexander Laing, a Scottish wine and spirit merchant who wanted to give something back to the city in which he had made his Fortune. Another art gallery, the Hatton Gallery (now part of Newcastle University), opened in 1925.

With the advent of the motor car, Newcastle's road network was improved in the early part of the 20th century, beginning with the opening of the Redheugh road bridge in 1900 and the Tyne Bridge (a suspension bridge) in 1928.

Efforts to preserve the city's historic past were evident as long ago as 1934, when the Museum of Science and Industry opened, as did the John G Joicey Museum in the same year.

Council housing began to replace inner city slums in the 1920s and the process continued into the 1970s, along with substantial private house building and acquisition under the Right to Buy.

Unemployment hit record heights in Newcastle during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The city's last coalpit closed in 1956. The slow demise of the shipyards on the banks of the River Tyne happened in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s.

 

 

 

 

 

View northwards from the Castle Keep, towards Berwick-on-Tweed in 1954

 
Panorama from Newcastle castle keep across the River Tyne to Gateshead in 1954



The public sector in Newcastle began to expand in the 1960s, as more people were employed in local government administration and Newcastle University was founded in 1963, followed by a Newcastle Polytechnic in 1969; the latter received university status in 1992 and became the Northumbria University.

Further efforts to preserve the city's historic past continued as the 20th century wore on, with the opening of Newcastle Military Museum in 1983 and Stephenson Railway Museum in 1986. New developments at the turn of the 21st century included the Life Science Centre in 2000 and Millennium Bridge in 2001.

Based at St James' Park since 1886, Newcastle United FC became Football Leaguemembers in 1893. They have won four top division titles (the first in 1905 and the most recent in 1927), six FA Cups (the first in 1910 and the most recent in 1955) and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1969.[30] They broke the world national transfer record in 1996 by paying £15million for Blackburn Rovers and England striker Alan Shearer, one of the most prolific goalscorers of that era.

 

 

 


 

Newcastle Quayside Seen here in 2008 on the Quayside are the Tyne Salmon Cubes; a celebration of the River Tyne Salmon






Transport

 

 

 

Three aircraft parked at Newcastle International Airport

 

 

 

 

Airport

 

 

 

Newcastle International Airport is located approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) from the city centre on the northern outskirts of the city near Ponteland and is the largest of the two main airports serving the North East. It is connected to the city via the Metro Light Rail system and a journey into Newcastle city centre takes approximately 20 minutes. The airport handles over five million passengers per year, and is the tenth largest, and the fastest growing regional airport in the UK, expecting to reach 10 million passengers by 2016, and 15 million by 2030. As of 2007, over 90 destinations are available worldwide.

 





Rail

 

 

 

Inside Newcastle Central Station

 

 

 

 

Newcastle railway station, also known as Newcastle Central Station, is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line and Cross Country Route. Central Station is one of the busiest stations in Britain.

In 2014, work was completed on the stations historic entrance. Glazing was placed over the historic arches and the Victorian architecture was enhanced; transforming the 19th century public portico. The station is one of only six Grade One listed railway stations in the UK. Opened in 1850 by Queen Victoria, it was the first covered railway station in the world and was much copied across the UK. It has a neoclassical façade, originally designed by the architect John Dobson, and was constructed in collaboration with Robert Stephenson. The station sightlines towards the Castle Keep, whilst showcasing the curvature of the station’s arched roof. The first services were operated by the North Eastern Railway company. The city's other mainline station, Manors, is to the east of the city centre.

Train operator East Coast provides a half-hourly frequency of trains to London King's Cross, with a journey time of about three hours. Other destinations on the East Coast Main Line include to the south; Durham, Darlington, York,Doncaster and Peterborough and north to Scotland with all trains calling at Edinburgh and some extended to Glasgow,Aberdeen and Inverness. CrossCountry trains serve destinations in Yorkshire, the Midlands and the South Westincluding Birmingham, Bournemouth, Bristol, Derby, Leeds, Plymouth, Sheffield and Reading. First TransPennine Expressoperates services to Manchester and LiverpoolNorthern Rail provides local and regional services to Carlisle, Hexham,Sunderland, Middlesbrough and Morpeth.

 

 

 

 

 

Road

 


Major roads in the area include the A1 (Gateshead Newcastle Western Bypass), stretching north to Edinburgh and south to London; the A19 heading south past Sunderland and Middlesbrough to York and Doncaster; the A69 heading west toCarlisle; the A696, which becomes the A68 heads past Newcastle Airport and up through central Northumberland and central Scottish Borders, the A167, the old "Great North Road", heading south to GatesheadChester-le-StreetDurhamand Darlington; and the A1058 "Coast Road", which runs from Jesmond to the east coast between Tynemouth andCullercoats. Many of these designations are recent—upon completion of the Western Bypass, and its designation as the new line of the A1, the roads between this and the A1's former alignment through the Tyne Tunnel were renumbered, with many city centre roads changing from a 6-prefix to their present 1-prefix numbers. In November 2011 the capacity of the Tyne Tunnel was increased when a project to build a second road tunnel and refurbish the first tunnel was completed.

 

 

 

Education

 

 

There are eleven LEA-funded 11 to 18 schools and seven independent schools withsixth forms in Newcastle. There are a number of successful state schools, including Walker Technology College, Gosforth High School, Heaton Manor School, St Cuthbert's High School, St. Mary's Catholic Comprehensive School, Kenton School,George Stephenson High School, Sacred Heart and Benfield School. The largest co-ed independent school is the Royal Grammar School. The largest girls' independent school is Central Newcastle High School. Both schools are located on the same street in Jesmond. Another notable girls' independent school in Jesmond is Newcastle upon Tyne Church High School located at Tankerville Terrace. Newcastle School for Boys is the only independent boys' only school in the city and is situated in Gosforth. Newcastle College is the largest general further education college in the North East and is a beacon status college; there are two smaller colleges in the Newcastle area. St Cuthbert's High School and Sacred Heart are the two primary state-Catholic run high schools, and are both achieving results on par with the independent schools in Newcastle. Tyne Theatre Stage School is a stage school in Newcastle upon Tyne.

 

There are eleven LEA-funded 11 to 18 schools and seven independent schools withsixth forms in Newcastle. There are a number of successful state schools, including Walker Technology College, Gosforth High SchoolHeaton Manor SchoolSt Cuthbert's High SchoolSt. Mary's Catholic Comprehensive SchoolKenton School,George Stephenson High SchoolSacred Heart and Benfield School. The largest co-ed independent school is the Royal Grammar School. The largest girls' independent school is Central Newcastle High School. Both schools are located on the same street in Jesmond. Another notable girls' independent school in Jesmond is Newcastle upon Tyne Church High School located at Tankerville Terrace. Newcastle School for Boys is the only independent boys' only school in the city and is situated in Gosforth. Newcastle College is the largest general further education college in the North East and is a beacon status college; there are two smaller colleges in the Newcastle area. St Cuthbert's High School and Sacred Heart are the two primary state-Catholic run high schools, and are both achieving results on par with the independent schools in Newcastle. Tyne Theatre Stage School is a stage school in Newcastle upon Tyne.

 

 

 

Religious sites

 

 

 

St. Nicholas' Cathedral, as seen from the Castle

 

 

 

Newcastle has three cathedrals, the Anglican St. Nicholas, with its elegant lantern tower of 1474, the Roman Catholic St. Mary's designed by Augustus Welby Pugin and the CopticCathedral located in Fenham.[206] All three cathedrals began their lives as parish churches. St Mary's became a cathedral in 1850 and St Nicholas' in 1882. Another prominent church in the city centre is the Church of St Thomas the Martyr which is the only parish church in theChurch of England without a parish and which is not a peculiar.

One of the largest evangelical Anglican churches in the UK is Jesmond Parish Church, situated a little to the north of the city centre.

Newcastle is home to the only Bahá’í Centre in North East England, the centre has served the local Bahá’í community for over 25 years and is located close to the Civic Centre inJesmond.

Newcastle was a prominent centre of the Plymouth Brethren movement up to the 1950s and some small congregations still function. Among these are at the Hall, Denmark Street and Gospel Hall, St Lawrence.

The Parish Church of St Andrew is traditionally recognised as 'the oldest church in this town'.[207] The present building was begun in the 12th Century and the last addition to it, apart from the vestries, was the main porch in 1726.[208] It is quite possible that there was an earlier church here dating from Saxon times. This older church would have been one of several churches along the River Tyne dedicated to St Andrew, including the Priory church at Hexham.[208] The building contains more old stonework than any other church in Newcastle. It is surrounded by the last of the ancient churchyards to retain its original character. Many key names associated with Newcastle's history worshipped and were buried here. The church tower received a battering during the Siege of Newcastle by the Scots who finally breached the Town Wall and forced surrender. Three of the cannonballs remain on site as testament to the siege.

 

 

 

 

 Source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newcastle_upon_Tyne


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