Nottingham is a city in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands of England.
Nottingham is known for its links to the legend of Robin Hood and for its lace-making, bicycle and tobacco industries. It was granted its city charterin 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.
In 2013, Nottingham had an estimated population of 310,837 with the wider urban area, which includes many of the city's suburbs, having a population of 729,977. The population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,543,000.
Nottingham is a popular tourist destination; in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the sixth highest amount in England.
Culturally, there are two large-capacity theatres, numerous museums and art galleries, the Broadway Cinema, the Savoy Cinema, Nottingham and several live music venues, including the Nottingham Arena and Rock City, both of which regularly host major UK and international artists. The city also hosts two music festivals annually - Dot to Dot, which takes place in various city centre venues over the course of a weekend every May, andSplendour, in Wollaton Park each July.
Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is also served byNottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transittram system, the second line of which is due to open in 2015. East Midlands Airport is 13 miles (21 km) south-west of the city.
Over 61,000 students attend the city's two universities, Nottingham Trentand the University of Nottingham.
From top left: Skyline of the Old Market Square area, including the dome of the Council House; Nottingham Castle; the University of Nottingham; Street scene in theLace Market; Nottingham Express Transit tram in Victoria Street; the Theatre Royal
In Anglo-Saxon times the area was part of the Kingdom of Mercia, and was known in the Brythonic language as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish Gaelic as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling". When it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham"; the homestead of Snot's people (Inga = the people of; Ham = homestead). Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga, caves, and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form".
Nottingham was captured in 867 by Viking/Danish Great Heathen Army and later became one of the Five Burghs – or fortified towns – of the Danelaw.
Nottingham Castle was constructed in the 11th century on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. The Anglo-Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts. A settlement also developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. On the return of Richard the Lion Heart from the Crusades, the castle stood out in Prince John's favour. It was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured.
The City of Nottingham's boundaries are tightly drawn and exclude several suburbs and satellite towns that are usually considered part of Greater Nottingham. The western suburbs of Beeston, Stapleford and Eastwoodare administered by Broxtowe borough council. Further west still, the Nottingham urban district extends intoDerbyshire where Ilkeston and Long Eaton are administered by Erewash borough council, and Ripleyby Amber Valley. To the north, Hucknall is controlled by Ashfield district council, while in the east Arnold and Carlton form part of the borough of Gedling. South of the river, the suburb of West Bridgford lies in Rushcliffe, as do the outlying villages of Ruddington and Tollerton and the town of Bingham. In December 2011, Rushcliffe, was named one of the 20 most desirable places to live in the UK by the Halifax building society. It was one of only four places outside the south of the country to appear in the top 50.
King Street with Alfred Waterhouse's and Watson Fothergill's buildings
Nottingham is home to two universities: the Nottingham Trent University and University of Nottingham; both of which have several campuses in the city. In 2011/12, Nottingham Trent University had 27,930 students, and the University of Nottingham had 35,630, The University of Nottingham Medical School is part of the Queen's Medical Centre.
Three further education colleges are located in Nottingham. Bilborough College is solely a Sixth Form college. Central College was formed from the merger of South Nottingham College and Castle College. New College was formed from a merger of four smaller further education colleges.
Nottingham also has a number of independent schools, with Nottingham High School– which was founded in 1513 –being the city's oldest educational establishment.
Nottingham has two large-capacity theatres, the Nottingham Playhouse and theTheatre Royal (which, together with the neighbouring Royal Concert Hall forms the Royal Centre) The city is also host to smaller theatre venues, such as theNottingham Arts Theatre the Lace Market Theatre and New Theatre (the only entirely student-run theatre in England).
The city contains several museums and art galleries including:
Other museums and galleries outside the city boundary but within the Greater Nottingham conurbation include:
In addition the city owns Newstead Abbey which is outside the conurbation.
The city has several multiplex cinemas. Independent cinemas include the Broadway Cinema, Savoy Cinema, (a four-screen Art Deco cinema), as well an Arthouse cinema in Hockley. Broadway was redeveloped and expanded in 2006.Quentin Tarantino held the British premiere of Pulp Fiction there in 1994.
Parks and gardens include Wollaton Park (over 500 acres (202 ha) centred on Wollaton Hall), Colwick Park (which includes the racecourse), the Nottingham Arboretum, Forest Recreation Ground and Victoria Park. Sherwood Forest, Rufford Country Park,Creswell Crags and Clumber Park are further away from the city itself.
There are two main Robin Hood events throughout the Nottingham area, including the Robin Hood Pageant during October, and the Robin Hood Festival during the summer. The pageant is held at the Castle, whilst the festival is held in nearby Sherwood Forest. The city is also home to the Nottingham Robin Hood Society, founded in 1972 by Jim Lees and Steve and Ewa Theresa West.
Nottingham is served by East Midlands Airport (formerly known as Nottingham East Midlands Airport until it again reverted to its original name of East Midlands airport). East Midlands Airport is near Castle Donington which is in North West Leicestershire, just under 15 miles (24 km) south west of the city centre. The airport is 10th busiest airport in the UK in terms of passenger traffic, and the UK's busiest for pure freight, with separate cargo hubs for Royal Mail, TNT and DHL.
Nottingham is also connected by both road and rail. The M1 motorway passes to the west of the city, and the city is well connected by rail, with services run fromNottingham railway station by CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains and Northern Rail.
The reintroduction of trams in 2004 made Nottingham one of only six English cities to have a light rail system. The trams run from the city centre to Hucknall in the north, with an additional spur to the Phoenix Park Park and Ride close to Junction 26 of the M1. Two new lines are under construction to the southern suburbs of Wilford and Clifton and the western suburbs of Beeston andChilwell.
The city has the largest public bus network in the UK, the overwhelming majority of which is operated by Nottingham City Transport, which runs a colour-coded network of 68 routes and is the city's fifth largest private employer. In September 2010, Nottingham was named "England's least car-dependent city" by the Campaign for Better Transport with London and Manchester in second and fourth place respectively. In November 2010, Nottingham City Council won Transport Authority of the Year by the UK Bus Awards, for services for providing safer and sustainable public transport.
The traditional requirement of city status is a (Church of England) cathedral; Nottingham, however, does not have one, having only been created a city in 1897, in celebration of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. From around 1100AD Nottingham was part of the Diocese of Lichfield, controlled as anArchdeaconry from Lichfield Cathedral in Staffordshire. However, in 1837 the archdeaconry was transferred and came under the control of the Diocese of Lincoln. In 1884 the archdeaconry became part of the newly created Diocese of Southwell, which it, and the city, are still part of today. The Bishop is based at Southwell Minster, 14 miles (23 km) north-east of the city. In 2005 the diocese was renamed the Diocese of Southwell and Nottingham.
Despite not having a cathedral, Nottingham has three notable historic Anglican parish churches, all of which date back to the Middle Ages. St. Mary the Virgin, in the Lace Market, is the oldest and largest. The church dates from the eighth or ninth centuries, but the present building is at least the third on the site, dating primarily from 1377 to 1485. St. Mary's is considered the mother church of the city and civic services are held here, including the welcome to the new Lord Mayor of Nottinghameach year. It is a member of the Greater Churches Group. St. Peter's in the heart of the city is the oldest building in continuous use in Nottingham, with traces of building starting in 1180. St. Nicholas' was rebuilt after destruction in the Civil War.
Non-conformism was strong from the 17th century onwards and a variety of chapels and meeting rooms proliferated throughout the town. Many of these grand buildings have been demolished, including Halifax Place Wesleyan Chapel, but some have been re-used, notably High Pavement Chapel which is now a public house. The offices of theCongregational Federation are in Nottingham. William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army, was born in Nottingham in 1829.
Nottingham is one of 18 British cities that do not have an Anglican cathedral; a traditional requirement for city status. It is however, home to the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Barnabas, which was designed by Augustus Pugin andconsecrated in 1844. It is the cathedral church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nottingham.
Today there are places of worship for all major religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Taoism and Judaism. The Nottingham Inter-faith Council works to make connections between faith groups and show the wider public the importance of spiritual aspects of life and the contribution faith groups make to the community. An annualSaraswati Puja is organised by the Indian diaspora under the aegis of the socio-cultural group Jhankar-NICA in January/February.