Perth (i//; Scottish Gaelic: Peairt) is a city in central Scotland, located on the banks of theRiver Tay. It is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county ofPerthshire. According to the preliminary 2011 census results Perth, including its immediate suburbs, has a population of 50,000. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the later medieval period the city was also called St John's Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist. This name is preserved by the city's football team, St. Johnstone F.C.
The name Perth comes from a Pictish word for wood or copse. There has been a settlement at Perth since prehistoric times, on a natural mound raised slightly above the flood plain of the Tay, where the river could be crossed at low tide. The area surrounding the modern city is known to have been occupied since Mesolithic hunter-gatherers arrived more than 8000 years ago. NearbyNeolithic standing stones and circles also exist, dating from about 4000 BC, following the introduction of farming in the area.
The presence of Scone Abbey, home of the Stone of Destiny where the King of Scots was crowned, enhanced the early importance of the city. Perth became known as a 'capital' of Scotland, due to the frequent residence of the royal court. Royal Burgh status was soon given to the city by King William the Lion in the early 12th century. The city became one of the richest burghs in the country, doing trade with France, the Low Countries and Baltic Countries for goods such as Spanish silk and French wine. The Scottish Reformation also played a big role in the city with the sacking of the Houses of the Greyfriars and Blackfriars, after a sermon given by John Knox in St John's Kirk in 1559. The Act of Settlement later brought about Jacobite uprisings. The city was occupied by Jacobite supporters on three occasions (1689, 1715 and 1745). The founding of Perth Academy in 1760 helped to bring major industries, such as linen, leather, bleachand whisky, to the city. Given its location, Perth was perfectly placed to become a key transport centre with the coming of the railways, and its first station was built in 1848.
Today, Perth serves as a retail centre for the surrounding area. Following the decline of the whiskyindustry locally, the city's economy has now diversified to include insurance and banking. Due to its location, the city is often referred to as the 'Gateway to the Highlands'. The Australian metropolis Perth took its name from the Scottish city.
|Scottish Gaelic: Peairt
|St John's Toun (old name)
The Fair City (nickname)
River Tay running through Perth city centre
Coat of arms of Perth
Landmarks and Tourism
The Category A listed St John's Kirk on South St John's Pl is architecturally and historically one of the most significant building in Perth. The settlement of the original church dates back to the 12th century. During the middle of the 12th century, the church was allowed to fall into disrepair, when most of the revenues were used by David I to fund Dunfermline Abbey. The majority of the present church was constructed between 1440 and 1500. Though much altered, its tower and lead-clad spire continue to dominate the Perth skyline. The Church has lost its medieval south porch and sacristy, and the northtransept was shortened during the course of the 19th century during street-widening. Another rare treasure, a unique survival in Scotland, is a 15th-century brass candelabrum, imported from the Low Countries. The survival of this object is all the more remarkable as it includes a statuette of the Virgin Mary. St. John's Kirk also had the finest collection of post-Reformation church plate in Scotland (now housed permanently in Perth Museum and Art Gallery). Equally remarkably, the collection of medieval bells is the largest to have survived in Great Britain.
The spire of Category B listed St Paul's Church which was completed in 1807 is a major focus point around St Paul's Square at the junction of Old High Street and North Methven Street. The development of the church led to an expansion of the city to the west. Pullar House on Mill Street was once used by Pullar's dyeworks, the largest industry in Perth at one time and has since been converted into office use for Perth and Kinross Council in 2000.
Fair Maid's House
The Category A listed Fair Maid's House on North Port is the oldest surviving secular building in Perth. Built on the foundations of previous buildings, parts of the structure date back from 1475. Purchased by the Glovers Association in 1693 for use as a meeting house, the house was reconstructed in 1893 to its current appearance. This was used as the home of Catherine Glover in the novel, The Fair Maid of Perth which was written by Sir Walter Scott in 1828. In 2010, the house was converted by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS) into a visitor and educational centre reflecting the history of Perth. The work also included the extension of a building between the Fair Maid's House and the neighbouring Lord John Murray's House from which the RSGS have operated their headquarters, when it moved to Perth in 2008. The Scottish Government awarded funding of £450,000 to aid the project, while the other £350,000 was provided by the RSGS themselves. The sensitive conversion of the building was recognised by the Perth Civic Trust, winning its restoration and renovation award in 2011.
The nearby City Mills built to serve the lade from the River Almond was once the site of industry until the early 19th century. Only the Upper and Lower Mills survive to this day. The Category A listed Lower Mills which date from 1805 were used for barley and oatmeal, while the Category A listed Upper Mills of 1792 consisted of two wheat mills connected to a granary. The Category A listed former Perth Waterworks completed in 1832, serve as the main focus point on the southern end of the city centre. The waterworks which have been converted into a gallery dedicated to the works of J.D. Fergusson in 1992, is one of the very few early surviving examples of a cast iron structure